Hedging is a kind of language use which ‘protects’ your claims.

Using language with a suitable quantity of caution can protect your claims from being easily dismissed. It also helps to indicate the amount of certainty we now have in relation to the data or support.

Compare the next two short texts, (A) and (B). You will see that although the two texts are, in essence, saying the same task, (B) has a significant amount of extra language across the claim. A large level of this language is performing the function of ‘hedging’.

Compare the next two texts that are short (A) and (B). How many differences do you see when you look at the second text? What is the function/effect/purpose of every difference?

You will probably observe that (B) is more ‘academic’, but it is important to understand why.

(A) Extensive reading helps students to enhance their vocabulary.

(B) Research conducted by Yen (2005) seems to indicate that, for an important proportion of students, extensive reading may donate to a marked improvement inside their active vocabulary. Yen’s (2005) study involved learners aged 15-16 when you look at the UK, even though it might be applicable to other groups. However, the study involved an opt-in sample, which means the sample students might have been more ‘keen’, or more involved with reading already. It could be helpful to see if the findings differ in a wider sample.

(take note that Yen (2005) is a fictional reference used only as one example).

The table below provides some examples of language to utilize when making knowledge claims.

Look for types of hedging language in your reading that is own add for this table.

Phrases for Hedging

Language Function with Example Phrases

1) Quantifiers

a fraction
a minority/majority of
a proportion of
to a point

2) Appearance

appears to
has the looks of
is similar to
shares characteristics with
appears to be in line with

3) Possibility

has the possibility of
has the potential to
is in a position to

4) Frequency

tends to
has a tendency to

5) Comparatively

in a simpler way than .
more simply than …
When compared to …

Within the context of …
…in certain situations…
Within some households…

7) Ev >Based on …
As indicated by …
According to …

8) Description in language

may be described as
could be considered to be
is sometimes labelled
can be equated to
the term is frequently used to mean
the term is frequently used to refer to
this may indicate that …
this may claim that …

Language categories devised and compiled by Jane Blackwell

IOE Writing Centre Online

Self-access resources from the Academic Writing Centre in the UCL Institute of Education.

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Academic Writing Centre, UCL Institute of Education

Essays often sound tough, vital link however they are the simplest way to publish an extended answer.
In this lesson, we will have a look at just how to write one.


Start your answer, and list what you should be currently talking about

Write on the basic ideas which will answr fully your question


Re-write exactly what your ideas are and say why they have been answered by you

Arguments, Keywords and Definitions

Before we start dealing with how an essay works, we must go through three terms that individuals will use to describe what you do for essay writing structure.
Argument = all of the points that are main are going to come up with in your essay.
Keywords = words that are important areas of the question
Definition = A one-sentence summary of the essay that is whole which write in your introduction.
We will go through some examples in a second.

Basic Introduction

To publish your introduction, follow these steps. All these steps means you start a sentence that is new.

  • Rewrite the question using keywords, range from the name of text(s) and author(s)
  • Write a one sentence answer (definition)
  • List all of the main points of one’s argument

Example of an Introduction

Are pigs in a position to fly? (Question)
Pigs are unable to fly. (Re-write of question)
they are unable to fly because their bodies do not allow them to. (Definition)
They are too heavy to float, they do not have wings or propellers, and they cannot control aircraft. (Main Points)

Your body forms most of your essay.
It is the most part that is important of essay you write.
Within you, you have to argue all of your points that are main explain why they reply to your question.
Each main point ought to be in a new paragraph.

Each main point ought to be in a different paragraph. Each paragraph should always be lay out such as this:

  • Topic Sentence: a sentence that is short you repeat one main point from your introduction.
  • Discussion: Explain why your point that is main is and provide explanations why.
  • Evidence: Proof that you get from a text, a quote, or a ‘fact’. It should prove that your particular answer is right.
  • Lead out: Finish the main point so you can easily go to the next.

Illustration of a Body Paragraph

Pigs are way too heavy to float. (Topic Sentence)
Their large bodies and weight imply that they are not able to float, which can be a proven way a creature can fly. To float a pig would have to be lighter than air. (discussion)
A pig weighs 200 kilograms, and as a result of this weight, it is really not lighter than air. (Evidence)
For this reason, a pig is not able to float and cannot fly. (Lead out)

Conclusion of Essay Writing Structure

A conclusion is a summary that is short of you have written in the human body paragraph.
It will ‘tie’ everything together.

As pigs aren’t able to float, they do have wings and cannot control aircraft, they unable to go into the atmosphere, and fly that is therefore cannot.